# Cryptography: Frequently Asked Questions

## What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science of writing or solving codes. Cryptography is an essential element in keeping the "secrets" that we wish to communicate to a select few "private" in today's electronic world.

Source: www.tecsec.com

Cryptography is the science of disguising information through encryption (scambling) and restoring it to its original form through decryption. It provides similar, but much stronger, security assurances that signatures, paper envelopes and codeboks have always provided.

Source: www.netrust.com.sg

Cryptography is the science of disguising information through encryption (scrambling) and restoring it to its original form through decryption. It provides similar, but much stronger, security assurances that signatures, paper envelopes and codebooks have always provided.

Source: www.digitalidentity.co.nz

Cryptography is the science of enabling secure communications between a sender and one or more recipients. This is achieved by the sender scrambling a message (with a computer program and a secret key) and leaving the recipient to unscramble the message (with the same computer program and a key, which may or may not be the same as the sender's key). ...

Source: www.aponline.gov.in

Cryptography is the science of enabling secure communications between a sender and one or more recipients. This is achieved by the sender scrambling a message (with a computer program and a secret key) and leaving the recipient to unscramble the message (with the same computer program and a key, which may or may not be the same as the sender's key). ...

Source: mtnltrustline.com

## What is encryption and cryptography?

Encryption is the transformation of data into a form (a cipher) that is, for most intents and purposes, impossible to read with out the appropriate decoder (a cryptographic key). Its purpose is to ensure privacy by keeping information hidden from anyone for whom it is not intended, even those who have access to the encrypted data. Decryption is the reverse of encryption; it is the transformation of encrypted data back into an intelligible form. ...

Source: mall.jaring.my

Cryptography creates a secure environment for the information being transferred between your browser and China Construction Bank (Asia). Put simply, secure data such as your customer ID and Password are scrambled in our encryption/cryptography process and will not be easily seen by unauthorized persons.

Source: www.asia.ccb.com

Encryption/Cryptography creates a secure environment for the information being transferred between your browser and China Construction Bank (Macau). Put simply, secure data such as your customer ID and Password are scrambled in our encryption/cryptography process to avoid disclosing your information by unauthorized persons.

Source: www.asia.ccb.com

## What is symmetric cryptography?

Encryption uses a mathematical key to provide secrecy. Symmetric cryptography refers to encryption systems that use the same key to encrypt and decrypt. A longer explanation can be found here: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/symmetric_key_cryptography.htm There are many books that explain these concepts in more detail. We recommend Chapter XX of Secrets & Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World, by Bruce Schneier.

Source: www.votingintegrity.org

## What is public-key cryptography?

This is a modern form of cryptography, where a different key is used for encryption and decryption. Many modern security systems make extensive use of public-key cryptography. See: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/public_key_cryptography.html

Source: www.votingintegrity.org

Public Key Cryptography is a method for securely exchanging messages, based on assigning two complimentary keys (one public, one private) to the individuals involved in a transaction. Public Key Cryptography is based on the science of encryption, the mathematical scrambling and unscrambling of messages. e)

Source: www.ncodesolutions.com

Public key cryptography uses a key pair, a public key and a secret key, to control encryption, decryption, and digital signature operations. The public key can be distributed to anybody who wants to communicate with you. The secret key is to be kept secret, i.e., the owner of the key is the only person who should have access to the secret key. To provide an extra level of protection, the secret key is protected by a pass phrase.

Source: www.idzap.com

## What is secret key cryptography?

Secret-key cryptography is sometimes referred to as symmetric cryptography. It is the more traditional form of cryptography, in which a single key can be used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Secret-key cryptography not only deals with encryption, but it also deals with authentication. d)

Source: www.ncodesolutions.com

## What cryptography standards are supported?

NSS supports SSL v2 and v3 , TLS , PKCS #5 , PKCS #7 , PKCS #11 , PKCS #12 , S/MIME , and X.509 v3 certificates. For complete details, see Encryption Technologies Available in NSS 3.11

Source: developer.mozilla.org

## What are Cryptography and Steganography?

Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. Today, cryptography lets you store sensitive information (i.e. computer files) or to transmit information (eg. email or voice) across unsecure networks, a telephone, or the Internet, so that it cannot be read by anyone except the intended recipient. ...

Source: members.fortunecity.com

## What is secret/symmetric cryptography?

Secret key (symmetric/conventional) cryptography is a system based on the sender and receiver of a message knowing and using the same secret key to encrypt and decrypt their messages. One weakness of this system is that the sender and receiver must trust some communications channel to transmit the secret key to prevent from disclosure. Example: You use a strongbox to send a valuable gift to your friend, locking it with a key. No one can get to the gift without the key, including your friend. ...

Source: www.aponline.gov.in

## Is steganography like cryptography?

It's a close cousin. Some steganography algoritihms hide information so it can't be found. Others hide it with a key. If you don't know the secret phrase or password, you can't get the information out.

Source: www.wayner.org

## Where does the word cryptography come from?

The word "cryptography" is taken from the Greek word "kryptos" meaning hidden and graphein meaning writing. Cryptography is the science of hidden writing or more accurately the study of encrypting or encyphering messages so that their content is obscured until they are decrypted or decyphered. Typically, the encryption process uses a key or password, the encryption key, and the message can only be decrypted if the correct decryption key is given.

Source: www.votingintegrity.org

## What is Server Gated Cryptography (SGC)?

government restrictions on U.S. vendors prevented the export of "strong" cryptography several years ago. As a result, many people purchased computers or downloaded export version browsers supporting only 40- or 56-bit SSL encryption. Microsoft developed "Server Gated Cryptography" ("SGC") and Netscape developed "step-up" technology to enable
128-bit SSL encryption with export versions of browsers. ...

Source: www.verisign.com.sg

government restrictions on U.S. vendors prevented the export of “strong” cryptography several years ago. As a result, many people purchased computers or downloaded export version browsers supporting only 40- or 56-bit SSL encryption. Microsoft developed "Server Gated Cryptography" ("SGC") and Netscape developed "step-up" technology to enable 128-bit SSL encryption with export browser versions. ...

Source: www.verisign.co.uk

Prior to January 2000, U.S. government restrictions on U.S. vendors prevented the export of "strong" cryptography. As a result, many people purchased computers with operating systems and/or used export version browsers that supported only 40- or 56-bit SSL encryption. "Server Gated Cryptography" ("SGC") was developed to enable those restricted computers and export version browsers to "step up" to 128-bit SSL encryption. ...

Source: www.verisign.com

## żWhat is cryptography?

Cryptography (kryptos = hidden + graphe = writing) is the art of encrypted or enigmatic writing. In principle, it can be expressed as a set of techniques that make possible to ensure that only the addressee can decode the message. In today’s world these techniques also allow the identification of the sender, verification of the message receipt, and a guarantee that the message has not been modified, etc…

Source: www.fnmt.es

## Can I use this tool for cryptography?

You shouldn't. For more information, have a look at the Wikipedia article about the Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator.

Source: www.randomcodegenerator.nl

## How secure is the conventional cryptography (-c) option?

Assuming that you are using a good strong random pass phrase, it is actually much stronger than the normal mode of encryption because you have removed RSA which is believed to be the weakest link in the chain. Of course, in this mode, you will need to exchange secret keys ahead of time with each of the recipients using some other secure method of communication, such as an in- person meeting or trusted courier.

Source: www.unix-ag.uni-kl.de

## What are the bases for security in cryptography?

The security of cryptography is based on three factors: The quality of the algorithms used. These algorithms do not necessarily have to be confidential, but they must be based on questions that are accepted as being difficult to solve by mathematicians without knowledge of a secret. This secret is called the key. Implementation of these algorithms. It is much easier to find a way around a poor implementation of an algorithm, than to "break" the algorithm itself. Key management. ...

Source: www.ssi.gouv.fr

## Is you cryptography military grade?

Military grade cryptography is widely used as a marketing resource. Security forces would not release their technologies fro civilian use. We assure you that SECVOICE 3G uses the highest standard cryptography known to the market.

Source: www.secvoice.com.br

## What is PKCS12(The Public Key Cryptography Standards)??

Subscribe carry format is to transfer user’s private key, certificate and other secret.

Source: moica.nat.gov.tw

## What is PKCS11(The Public Key Cryptography Standards)?

Subscribe program and hardware encryption token communication interface(It usually mains smart card)，like Netscape uses it to assist the communication of IC card and S/MIME.

Source: moica.nat.gov.tw

## Does LunarPages provide any cryptography libraries?

LunarPages provides the default Java Cryptography Encryption (JCE) provider which comes with J2SE. Unfortunately, you cannot add any other provider dynamically and would have to use only this provider for your cryptography purposes.

Source: wiki.lunarpages.com

## What are cryptography, encryption and cryptanalysis?

CRYPTOGRAPHY is the science of code writing, and cryptographic research explores and develops theories and methodologies for rendering messages or information unintelligible to others. Up until the early 1970s, cryptography was the almost exclusive concern of governments. During the past 15 years, however, there has been an explosion of academic and private sector interest in the field. ...

Source: w2.eff.org